Vitamin B kingdom is consisted of 8 vitamins, which is known as vitamin B complex. Vitamin be can be found in protein foods like fish, poultry, meat, eggs and dairy products. Whole grains, beans, peas, and vegetable also has vitamin B. The group of vitamin B is scientifically proved helping the body to use energy-yielding nutrients like carbohydrates, fat and protein as fuel (Deakin University, 2014). Although they always work together, each of vitamin B has its uniqueness and important functions for the body.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B1 also called thiamine, is a water soluble vitamin that is mainly involved in energy production and carbohydrate metabolism. Thiamine also plays a role in the conduction of nerve impulses. In activated (co-enzyme) form plays an important role in the breakdown of glucose to energy. People with vitamin B1 deficiency, most likely will suffer several health problems like beriberi, depression, memory loss, concentration problems, muscle weakness and loss of appetite. People normally use thiamine for digestive problems including poor appetite and ongoing diarrhea. Even some professionals use thiamine for AIDS and boosting the immune system, diabetic pain, heart disease, alcoholism, aging, a type of brain damage, eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma, motion sickness, and improving athletic performance. Others use thiamine for maintaining a positive mental attitude, enhancing learning abilities, increasing energy, fighting stress, and preventing memory loss as well as Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, thiamine shots provided by healthcare to treat patients with a memory disorder (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome).
Dietary source: yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B2, also called as riboflavin is necessary for the energy supply of the body. Riboflavin plays a role in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Vitamin B2 is also necessary for the formation of red blood cells, for respiration, for the production of antibodies and for regulation of growth and reproduction. A deficiency of vitamin B2 leads to fatigue, slowed growth, digestive problems, eye fatigue, swelling and soreness of the throat, cracks and sores around the corners of the mouth, tongue abnormalities, and sensitivity to light. Food products contained vitamin B2shod not be exposed towards sunlight because vitamin B2 is not resistant to light.
Dietary source: almonds, wild rice, milk, yogurt, eggs, Brussels sprouts, spinach, soybeans, broccoli, whole grains, cottage cheese, liver, kidney, salmon, beef, fortified cereals, mushrooms.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Vitamin B3, also known as Niacin, is an essential nutrient for the body to convert carbohydrates, fat and alcohol into energy. It helps maintain skin health and supports the nervous and digestive systems. A deficiency of Niacin can cause Pellagra, characterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea (University of Maryland Medical Center).
Dietary source: beets, brewer’s yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, peanuts.
Vitamin B4 (Choline)
Vitamin B4, or known as Choline is an key component of DNA and RNA. The vitamin promotes the cell formation and ensures the normal tissue development. Also, it helps to boost immune systems so that the body will be protected from illness and infections. Additionally, the nutrient might possess antioxidant benefits at some level, therefore helping the body prevent and counteract the negative effects associated with oxidative stress (Dr. Kevin R. Jennings ND,2015). Deficiency of vitamin B4 may experience one or more of the following symptoms like skin disorders, blood disorders, nausea, slow physical growth rate, fatigue, vertigo, allergies, fable immune system function, sensitivity to insulin, muscle weakness, GI disturbances, depressed mood, physical exhaustion like feelings, anemia, and increased incidence of infection under all forms.
Dietary source: whole grains, whole breads, cloves, jojoba, kelp, spearmint, strawberry, ginger, raw honey, apple, orange, banana, seeds, tomatoes, asparagus, avocados, wheat, tempeh, fish, poultry, peanut butter, baker’s Yeast, bee pollen, sarsaparilla, royal jelly, propolis, and most vegetables
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid was discovered in 1931 by Roger J Williams. Vitamin B5 plays an important role in breaking down proteins, fats and carbohydrates for energy. Vitamin B5 deficiency is rare, but may include symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet, and upper respiratory infections (University of Maryland Medical Center,2013).
Dietary source: brewer’s yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocado, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef (especially organ meats such as liver and kidney), turkey, duck, chicken, milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, lobster, wheat germ, and salmon.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B6, also called as Pyridoxine contributes to involved at several steps in the metabolism of carbohydrates. In particular, the enzyme that pulls carbohydrates out of storage in the cell (in the form of a molecule called glycogen) requires vitamin B6 for its activity (the World’s Healthiest Foods, 2016). Vitamin B6’s deficiency can cause severe illness like muscle weakness, nervousness, irritability, depression, difficulty concentrating, and short-term memory loss (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2015).
Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) is the active coenzyme form of vitamin B6 that can be used directly by the body without having to make it first. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate has a beneficial effect on the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, and it contributes to good resistance.
Dietary source: fortified ready-to-eat cereal, chicken, turkey, tuna, salmon, shrimp, beef liver, milk, cheese, lentils, beans, spinach, carrots, brown rice, sunflower seeds, wheat germ, bananas, and whole-grain flour.